Islands, islets and cliffs of the Vis archipelago are habitats to as many as 126 bird species of which there are 11 targeted bird species within the ecological network Natura 2000, such as the characterstic open-sea species of Eleonora's falcon (Falco eleonorae), Scopoli's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) and the Yelkouan shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan). Eleonora's falcon is of great significane since it is almost nowhere to be found in Croatia, outside of the open-sea islands. Approximately 80 to 100 pairs nest in the area of Vis, Biševo, Svetac and the surrounding smaller islands.There are 17 known species of mammals known in the Vis archipelago, of which the most significant is the bat fauna, with the total of 10 known species of which 4 are targeted within the Natura 2000 network: Schreibers' long-fingered bat (Miniopterus schreibersii), Geoffroy's bat (Myotis emarginatus), the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) and the lesser horsheshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros).

The most endangered island species are the greater horseshoe bat, Geoffroy's bat and Scrheibers' long-fingered bat. Only one amphibian species was found of the island of Vis – European green toad (Bufo viridis), at only two localities. Vis archipelago is also home to 9 recorded reptile species, of which the most significant is the endemic type of karst lizards on some islets (Podarcis melisellensis var. melisellensis).Four-lined snake (Elaphe quatuorlineata), also a targeted species within the Natura 2000 network.Interestingly, there are no poisonous snakes on the island.


Until now, the total of 872 plant species were researched in the Vis island's flora, 485 of higher plant species in the flora of the island of Biševo, 383 vascular plants in the flora of the island of Svetac, 258 plant species in the flora of Palagruža's archipelago, 47 plan species on the island of Brusnik, 23 plant species on the islet of Jabuka and 24 plant species on the islet of Kamik. Among the flora of the Vis archipelago, there are 30 species targeted within the Natura 2000 network.

Econonically relevant plant species on the islands of Vis and Biševo include the grapevine, carob tree and recently also the olive tree. The island of Vis is known for its authentic grape variety Vugava,producing outstanding white wine once served to Austrian emperors at the Viennese court. An autochtonous carob variety also grows on the island – it is known as the Komiža Carob and it stands out from the other varieties in exceptional quality and bountiful crop.


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